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Mongolian culture

 

Kharakhorum & Erdenezuu Monastery

Kharakhorum & Erdenezuu Monastery

dab binäres handeln Altitude: 1340m above the sea level

look these up How to get there: Kharakhorum city ruins is located current town KarKhorin of Övörkhangai Province, Central Mongolia. From Ulaanbaatar to Karkhorin, all the way of 380 kilometer is paved, so you can get here by car or bus. Also During the high season (Jule to August), Eznis airlines making flight on Thursday and Saturday.

strategie vincenti opzioni binarie 15 minuti Things to do in this area: Trekking, Horse riding, rafting, kayaking, climbing, hiking, photographing, filming,

Kharakorum was the capital of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century. Located on the open steppe on the right bank of the Orkhon River in central Mongolia, some five kilometers away from the river itself and corner of the Övörkhangai Province of Mongolia, near today's town of Kharkhorin, and adjacent to the Erdene Zuu monastery. They are part of the upper part of the World Heritage Site Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape.

 

Kharakhorum was founded in 1220 by Genghis Khan as a military center. The name means black stones or black walls. Settlement patterns were informal with traders and craftsmen establishing themselves around the area until it grew into a town. While the prevailing winds aided in keeping the mosquitoes down in the summer months, that same wind blew bitterly cold in the winter with no natural land features to afford any protection either from the elements or from invaders. The proximity to the mountains and their seasonal grazing was attractive to these nomads. In short, Genghis Khan had selected the perfect site for a nomad camp, but not necessarily as the site of a fixed capital with property and people to protect.

 

It was his Genghis Khan's son Ogodei who built the city into an organized urban area. The walls formed a rectangle, with its top and bottom oriented on a northwest/southeast axis, conspicuously different from the usual north/south axis. The outer city walls were made of earth, 1000 meters on the north side, 1500 on the west, and two kilometers on the east. The remains of a northeast corner tower have been discovered, leading to the theory that each corner had one, modelled on the Chinese cities of the era. Ogodei's palace was situated in the southwest corner, itself a walled enclosure. West of the palace area was a pond filled by a canal from the Orkhon river. This canal also fed water into the city itself.

 

Kharkhorum city was not only governmental center of Great Mongolian Empire and wonderful architectural ensemble, but also a big connecting center of culture and trade between eastern and western countries in that time. Kharakhorum was roughly divided into four quarters. There was one for the traders, many of whom were Muslim, and markets, and another where the artisans imported from China congregated. The Mongol rulers were highly tolerant of religious differences and in Kharakhorum there were mosques, twelve "idol" temples, as William of Rubruck called them, though certainly at least one of these was Buddhist, and even one Christian church, all clustered together in one end of the city. The fourth quarter was a walled enclosure for the Khan, his family and his officials. A third of this palace city was taken up by government officials. Ogodei had gathered scribes who could translate from every language spoken throughout his empire.

 

Kharakhorum attracted numerous visitors from the west, all of them writing about their travels. Most notable is the Flemish Franciscan monk, William of Rubruck, who visited in 1253 and penned a detailed description of Kharakhorum and Mongolian life in his Journey to the East. He noted: "... Kharkhorum city was surrounded with square wall, with doors in each direction. Palace of great king located in the city center, five different flavor drinks flow from silver tree, which with Angel plays the pipe on the top of the tree. This installation, France craftsman Wilhelm fashioned, located in the square centre, where in front of the king palace. Trade pavilions, mosque and Christ churches located around of the city..."

Decline of Karakhorum City

Decline of Karakhorum City

In 1260, Khubilai khaan moved the Mongolian capital from Khara-Khorum to Kaiping (Xanedu or Shandu in Mongolian), then to Beejing (Daidu) in 1264. Karakorum was reduced to the administrative center of a provincial backwater of the Yuan Dynasty founded in China in 1271.

 

After the collapse of the Yuan dynasty in 1368 Karakorum became the residence of Biligtü Khan in 1370. In 1388, Ming troops under General Xu Da took and destroyed the town. Saghang Sechen's Erdeni-yin Tobči claims that a khuriltai in 1415 decided to rebuild it, but no archeological evidence for such a venture has been found yet. However, Karakorum was inhabited at the beginning of the 16th century, when Batu-Möngke Dayan Khan made it a capital once again. In the following years, the town changed hands between Oirads and Chinggisids several times, and was consequently given up permanently.

The Erdene Zuu Monastery

The Erdene Zuu Monastery

The Erdene Zuu Monastery is probably the most ancient surviving Buddhist monastery in Mongolia. It is in Övörkhangai Province, near the town of Kharkhorin and adjacent to the ancient city of Karakorum. It is part of the World Heritage Site entitled Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape.

 

The Erdene Zuu monastery was built in 1585 by Abtai Sain Khan, upon the (second) introduction of Tibetan Buddhism into Mongolia. Stones from the ruins of Karakorum were used in construction. It is surrounded by a wall featuring 102 stupas. The number 108, being a sacred number in Buddhism, and the number of beads in a Buddhist rosary, was probably envisioned, but never achieved. The monastery temples' wall were painted, and the Chinese-style roof was covered with green tiles. The monastery was damaged by warfare in the 1680s, but was rebuilt in the 18th century and by 1872 had a full 62 temples inside.

Modern time Monastery

Modern time Monastery

In 1939 the Communists had the monastery ruined, as part of a purge that obliterated hundreds of monasteries in Mongolia and killed over ten thousand monks. Three small temples and the external wall with the stupas remained; the temples became museums in 1947.

Erdene Zuu was allowed to exist as a museum only; the only functioning monastery in Mongolia was Gandantegchinlen Khiid Monastery in the capital, Ulaanbaatar. However, after the fall of Communism in Mongolia in 1990, the monastery was turned over to the lamas and Erdene Zuu again became a place of worship. Today Erdene Zuu remains an active Buddhist monastery as well as a museum that is open to tourists.

On a hill outside the monastery sits a stone phallus. The phallus is said to restrain the sexual impulses of the monks and ensure their good behavior.

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